[BPIK] Models, Strategies, Methods and Learning skills

Learning model is the presentation used by teachers in the learning process in order to achieve the purpose of learning. There are several models of learning such as lectures, discussions, demonstrations, case studies, role playing ( role play ) and so forth. Which of course each has advantages and disadvantages. Methods / models very important role in learning, because through the selection of model / method that can accurately direct the quality of teachers in effective learning.

Meaning Learning Model can be interpreted as a way of, example or pattern, which has the purpose meyajikan message to students should know, understand, and understand that is the way to make a pattern or example with materials chosen by teachers / teachers in accordance with the material given and the conditions in the classroom. A model will have certain characteristics seen from the complement factors. Features learning model year 1950 in America pioneered by Marc Belt discover the characteristics of the learning models, such as the following:
a.      Based on the theories of education and learning theory, for example learning model of inquiry composed by Richard Suchman and is designed to develop reasoning procedures are based on scientific research. Group learning model developed by Hebert Thelen designed to train the participation and cooperation in the group based on the theory of John Dewey.
b.      Having a mission or a specific educational purpose.
c.       Able to be lessons for improvement in classroom learning activities.
d.      Having the part model consisting of:
Ø  sequence of learning steps, ie steps that must be performed by teachers when using a specific learning model.
Ø  principle of reaction, ie the pattern of teacher behavior in reacting to the behavior of students in learning.
Ø  social system, is the pattern of relationship between teachers and students when studying the subject matter. There are three patterns of relationships in a social system, namely high, medium, and low. pattern of relationship is called high if the teacher be in control of learning. pattern of relationship is called when the middle-equal role with the student teacher in the learning activities. pattern of relationship is called low if the teacher gives freedom to the students in learning activities.
Ø  support system is supporting the successful implementation of learning activities in the classroom such as the media and props.
e. Have an impact as a result of application of learning models either directly impact the achievement of learning objectives, as well as indirect effects associated with long-term learning outcomes. According Komaruddin (2000) that models of learning can be defined as a conceptual framework that is used as a guideline in conducting activities. The model can be understood as: (1) the type or design (2) a description or analogy used to help visualize the process of something that can not be directly observed, (3) a system of assumptions, data, and inferences used to mathematically describe an event object, (4) a simplified design of a working system, a simplified translation of reality, (5) a description of a system that may or imaginary, and (6) the presentation of which is reduced in order to explain and demonstrate the nature of its original form.
On the basis of the understanding, the model of learning can be understood as a model of learning is a plan that has been programmed through the media of visual aid in helping to visualize the message contained in it to achieve the learning objectives as held in implementing learning activities. Joyce and Weil (2000) says there are four key categories of teaching that is observed in the model Information Model, personal model, interaction model, and model behavior. Teaching model that has been developed and test keberlakuannya experts' learning model to classify the four groups, namely:
1.     models of information processing ( information Procesisng Models ) explain how individuals gave responses that come from the environment by way of organizing the data, formulate issues, concepts and problem-solving plan and the use of symbols verbal and non-verbal. This model gives students a number of concepts, hypothesis testing, and focus attention on the development of creative abilities. The information management model can generally be applied to the learning objectives of various ages in the study of the individual and society. Therefore this model potential to be used in achieving the goals of personal and social dimensions in addition to the intellectual dimension. The processing models by Tom Final din (2001) consists of:
a.     Inductive Thinking Model
Characters are Hilda Taba. The purpose of this model is to develop the mental processes and inductive reasoning or academic theorizing. These capabilities are useful for the purposes of personal and social.
b.     Models Scientific inquiry
Characters are Joseph J. Schwab. This model aims to teach the study of a discipline system but is also expected to have an effect in other areas (social methods may be taught in an effort to improve social understanding and solving social problems).
c.      Models invention concept
Characters, Jerome Brunet. This model has tujuaan to develop inductive reasoning and the development and analysis of the concept.
d.     kongnitif growth model
Character, Jean Pieget, Irving Sigel, Edmund Sullivan, and Laawrence Kohlberg, the goal is to improve the intellectual development, especially logical reasoning, but can also be applied to the development of social moral.
e.      models advanced stylists
Character, David ausebel. The goal for improving the efficiency of information processing capabilities to absorb and relate the field of knowledge areas.
f.       Model memori
Characters, Harry Lorayne and Jerry Lucas. This model aims to improve the ability to remember
2.     models of personal ( personal family ) is a clump of  learning models that emphasize the process of personality development of individual attention to students with emotional life. Educational process deliberately cultivated to allow someone to understand him well, taking responsibility, and more creatively to achieve a better quality of life. This model focuses keada individual views and trying to promote productive independence. So expect Smanusia become increasingly self-aware and responsible for its purpose. The characters are:
a.       models of non-directive teaching
Character, Carl Rogers. The purpose of this model is the ability to establish personal development in the sense of self-awareness, self-understanding, self-reliance, and self-concept.
b.      Models awareness training
Characters is fritz Peris and William Schultz goal is to improve a person's ability to self-exploration and self-awareness. Many have emphasized the development of awareness and interpersonal understanding.
c       Model sinektik
Characters is William Gordon model aims to develop personal creativity and creative problem solving.
d      Model-sistem sistem konseptual
The characters are, David Hunt goal was to ningkatkan personal complexity and flexibility.
e.       models class meeting
Characters is William Glasser. Aims to develop self-understanding and social groups.
3.     models of social ( social family ) emphasis on efforts to develop the ability of students to a conversation that has to relate to others in an attempt to build a democratic student attitudes with respect to any differences in social reality. The core of this model is the concept of social synergy that is energy or power (strength) collected through cooperation as one of the phenomena of social life. By applying the social model, learning directed at efforts to engage learners in a live, study, apply and receive functions and social roles. The social model is designed to take advantage of the phenomenon of cooperation, guiding the students to define problems, explore various horizons of the problem, collect relevant data, and develop and test hypotheses, therefore teachers should teach democratic process directly so education should be organized in a way to research joint ( cooperative inquiry ) to the problems of social and academic issues.
4.     models the behavior of the learning system ( Behavioral Model of Teaching ) built on the framework of the theory of behavioral change, students are guided through the theory in order to solve behavior problems belajaar through decomposition into a small number and sequence.
From a variety of statements-statements about learning model above shows that many ways to implement a variety of effective and efficient learning. With semikian, through such approaches are expected teachers can choose which approach is appropriate to the needs of students in the current conditions. The point of the teacher should be able to adjust to the situation and the mood in the classroom students in the learning process. If it can be done by proper and continuous teacher, the learning process in the classroom menyenangkasn will be felt by both teachers and students.

The strategy used to obtain the success or success in achieving its objectives. Different strategies with the method, strategy refers to a plan to achieve something, while the method is a way that can be used to implement the strategies. In other words, the strategy is a plan of operation Achieving something ; While the method is a way in Achieving something .
Some education experts, gives understanding to the diverse learning strategies, namely:
Goddess Salma Prawiradilaga. Learning strategy is an attempt by planners in determining Tehnik message delivery, determination methods, and the media, groove lesson, as well as the interaction between instructors and students.
Vienna Sanjaya. Learning strategy is a plan of action (series of events), including the use of various methods and utilization of learning resources in order to achieve certain goals.
Made Wena. The word strategy means how and artistic use of resources to achieve specific goals. Learning means learners membelajarkan efforts. Thus, learning strategies and the ways art means to use all sources in an effort to teach bell membelajarkan learners.
Mansur Muslih. Learning strategy is a perspective and mindset of teachers in teaching.
From some of the learning strategies, concluded that the learning strategy is an approach to managing activities, by integrating the sequence of activities, equipment and materials as well as time spent in the learning process, to achieve the learning objectives that have been determined to actively and efficiently.
Learning strategies are classified into six, namely:
a.      direct learning strategy
Direct learning strategy is learning much directed by the teacher. Study materials are presented in the form of finished and students are required to master the material. direct instruction is usually deductive.
b.      indirect learning strategies
This strategy is often called the inquiry, inductive, problem solving, decision making, and discovery. Learner-centered learning, the teacher is only a facilitator, and manager of the learning environment, learners are given the opportunity to be actively involved in the learning process.
c.       interactive learning strategy
The learning emphasis on discussion and sharing among learners. Discussion and sharing gives learners the opportunity to react to ideas, experiences, approaches, knowledge of teachers or peers as well as to establish a way of thinking and feeling.
d.      Strategies empirical learning (experiential)
Empirically oriented learning activities inductive, learner centered, and activity-based.
e.      strategies self-regulated learning
Self-learning strategy is a learning strategy that aims to establish individual initiative, self-reliance, and self improvement.


One.      Methods Ceamah
Lecture method of learning is lighting verbally over the learning material to a group of listeners to achieve specific learning objectives in relatively large amounts. As shown by Mc Leish (1976), through lectures, can be accomplished several goals. With the lecture method, the teacher can encourage the emergence of inspiration for listeners.
Gage and Berliner (1981:457), states the lecture method is suitable for use in a learning with certain characteristics. Lectures suitable for the delivery of learning materials in the form of information and if the learning materials scarce.
2      Method Diskusi
Discussion teaching method is the involvement of two or more participants to interact with each other to exchange opinions, and or maintains mutual problem solving to obtain agreement among them. Learning using discussion method is interactive learning (Gagne & Briggs. 1979: 251).
According to Mc. Keachie-Kulik of research results, rather than the lecture method, discussion method can increase the child's understanding of concepts and problem-solving skills. But the transformation of knowledge, the use of discussion method uses the results slower than lecture. So that the lecture method is more effective to increase the quantity of children's knowledge of the methods of discussion.
3      Metode Simulask
Simulation method is a method of teaching that can be used in a learning group. The learning process that uses simulation tends object not the actual objects or events, but rather teaching activities that are pretending. Simulation activities can be carried out by students at higher grade in elementary school. In learning, students will be trained with regard to their ability to interact and communicate skills in the group. In addition, the simulation method students are invited to play the role of some of the behaviors that are considered appropriate to the learning objectives.
There are several types of simulation models of them, namely:
1. Play a role (Role Playing)
In the process of learning this method prioritizes the pattern of the game in the form of dramatization. Dramatization performed by a group of students with enforcement mechanisms directed by the teacher to carry out the activities that have been determined / planned. Simulation is more focused on the goal to remember or recreate the picture of the past which enables occur in the future or that the actual events and meaningful for life now.
2.      Sosiodrama
In his study conducted by the group to perform learning activities to solve problems related to individual problems as social beings. For example, the relationship of children and parents, between students and friends group.
3. Game simulation (simulation games)
In playing the role of student learning according to the assigned role as a study hall to make a decision.
A.      Characteristics Simulation Methods
Simulation teaching method is widely used in social studies, civics, Religious Education, and Education Appreciation. Capacity building in collaboration, communication and interaction is part of the skill that will be generated through simulation pembelajarn. Simulation teaching methods more demanding activities of students so that the simulation method as a method that is based on CBSA approach and process skills.
In addition, this method can be used in a contextual-based learning, one example of the learning material can be removed from social life, social values ​​and social problems are actual or past to future. The problems associated with the values ​​of social life and forming attitudes or behaviors can be done through this learning.
Directly or indirectly through simulations related to the student's ability to play a role can be developed. Students will master the concepts and skills of intellectual, social, and motor skills in the areas studied and able to learn through mock situations with feedback systems and continuous improvement. 
B.     Prosedur
The procedure of simulation methods that must be taken in pembalajaran are as follows:
1. Assign topics Oleg teacher-directed simulation
2. Establish group and topics to be discussed
3. Simulation begins with guidance from teachers about the procedures, techniques, and the role played
4. Prose observation of processes, roles, techniques, and procedures can be done with the discussion.
5. Conclusions and recommendations from simulated activities
According Suwarna, M.Pd The steps to be taken in carrying out the simulation ne:
a. Determine the topics and objectives
b. Provide an overview of the situation to be simulated
c. Forming a group and define the role of each
d. Specify the location and time of execution of the simulation
e. Simulations
f. Conducting an assessment
C.      Simulation Prerequisites that optimize learning
To support the effectiveness of the use of simulation methods need to be prepared student teachers' ability meupun optimal conditions. Below is described on the ability of teachers and students to support the effectiveness of the conditions simulated in the learning method.
The ability of teachers to be aware of to support simulation methods include:
a. Able to guide students in directing techniques, procedures, dam roles to be performed in the simulation.
b. Being able to provide illustrations
c. Able to capture the message in question in simulation.
d. Being able to observe the simulation process is carried out by students
As for the condition and capabilities of students that must be considered in the application of simulation methods are:
a. Conditions, interest, attention and motivation of students in simulated
b. The understanding of the message that will stimulate
c. Ability to communicate policy and role
D.    Keunggulan
Some advantages of the use of simulation methods are:
a. Students can carry out social interaction within the group and kominikasi.
b. Activity is high enough students in learning that is directly involved in learning.
c. Can mebiasakan students to understand social problems, it can be said as a contextual-based learning implementation
d. Through group activities in the simulation can foster positive personal relationships
e. Can excite the imagination
f. Communicative and collaborative relationship building in kelomok
E.     Kelemahan
However, the simulation method is still there drawbacks or constraints that may be anticipated by the teachers if this method will apply, which are:
a. Relative require substantial time
b. Rely heavily on student activity
c. Likely require the utilization of learning resources.
d. Many students are less like simulations so that the simulation is not effective.
4.      Methods of Problem Solving ( Problem Solving)
a. Definition of Problem Solving Methods ( Problem Solving)
Problem-solving method is a way of presenting the lesson by encouraging learners to find and solve a problem / issue in order to achieve teaching objectives. This method created an expert an American student named John Dewey. This method is called the Problem Method . While Crow & Crow in his book Human Development and Learning , said the name of this method with the Problem Solving Method.
As a basic principle in this method is the need for activities in learning something. The onset of activity learners if in case the teacher explains the benefits of teaching materials for learners and communities.
In his book "school and society" John Dewey argued that active learners in schools should be meaningful activeness means adapted to work is usually done in masyarakat.Alasan use of problem solving methods for researchers is to use a method of problem solving that students can work and think alone with Thus students will be able to remember the lessons of the just listened.
To solve a problem John Dewey put forward as follows:
1. To submit a question / masakah. Teachers present the problem to be broken down to the learners.
2. Clarify the question / problem. The problem is formulated by the teacher with participants proteges.
3. Looking at a possible answer students' entries of participants with teacher exploring the possibilities that will be implemented in solutions to problems.
4. Try out the possibilities that are considered beneficial. Teachers set a way of solving problems is considered most appropriate.
5. Way in which the assessed valuation, if it can bring the expected results or not.
b. Implementation Measures Troubleshooting Methods ( Problem Solving)
1. Preparation
a. The materials will be discussed first prepared by the teacher.
b. Teachers prepare the tools needed as an adjuvant in solving problems.
c. Teachers give general about ways of implementation.
d. Problems should be clearly presented to stimulate learners to think.
e. Problem should be practical and in accordance with the ability of learners
2. Implementation
a. The teacher explains in general about the problem being solved.
b. Teacher asks the learners to ask questions about the task to be performed.
c. Learners can work individually or in groups.
d. Learners may be able to find a solution and may not anyway.
e. If a solution is not found by the students then discussed why a solution is not found.
f. Troubleshooting can be done with the mind.
g. Data attempted to collect as much as possible so that the analysis be used as facts.
h. Concluded.
3.     Advantages of Problem Solving Methods (Problem Solving)
a. Train students to deal with problems-problems or situations that arise spontaneously.
b. Students to be active and take the initiative themselves and are responsible themselves.
c. School education relevant to life.
4.     Problems with Problem Solving (Problem Solving)
a. It takes a long time
b.     Pupil passive and lazy will be left behind
c.      's difficult to organize the subject matter.
d. It is hard to determine the issues that really fits with the learner's ability level.
5.      Methods Learning Group
etode learning is a technique used catering education teacher to teach or present subject matter to students in the classroom, so that lessons can be captured, understood and used by good students. There are a variety of traditional presentation techniques that have been used since the beginning until the modern techniques used at present. Learning techniques cluster is one of the strategies of learning and teaching, in which students in the classroom is seen as a group or divided into several small groups. Each cluster consists of 3 to 5 students, they work together in solving a problem or perform a specific task and to work towards a predetermined teaching teachers. Working group is a group of student activities which usually amounts to small, organized for the benefit of learning, where the success of this group claim that cooperative activities of individual members of the group (Robert L. Cilstrap and William R. Martin in Roestiyah 2001:45).
While Dimyati and Mudjiono (2002:34) suggests group work and leadership means working keterpimpinan students need to learn to stock in later life ". Further more fully Burton (Nasution 2000:56) explains "group work is the way people conduct relationships and cooperation with other individuals to cooperate. Relations in a democratic means of each individual group to participate, participate and contribute actively cooperate, so the individual will gain a better learning outcomes and attitude change ". Gains derived from the existence of a group learning approach is as follows. a) The student is responsible for the learning process, actively involved and have a greater effort to excel, b) students develop higher level thinking skills and critical thinking, and c) the occurrence of a positive relationship between students.
Thus the group associated with the learning of the student learning process together through interactive communication led by a leader to solve problems encountered in connection with the subject matter.
To establish a democratic man should be emphasized implementation of cooperation or group work, because according to the principle of cooperative education experts more boondoggle than competitive systems. Nasution (2000:34) points out some of the benefits of group work as follows.
a. Enhance the learning outcomes, both quantitatively and qualitatively.
b. Group decision easier to accept each member, when they helped to think and decide together.
c. Develop a sense of social good and social interaction.
d. Increasing confidence of group members.
While Roestiyah (2001:32) uses the advantages of group work techniques are: a) develop questioning skills, b) students are more intensive in the investigation, c) develop leadership talent, d) teachers pay more attention to students, e) students are more active, and f ) develop a sense of respect and honor among the students. Furthermore Mudjiono (2002:3) describes the "small group learning is an improvement of classical teaching weaknesses". As for the small group learning has the following objectives: a) provide opportunities for students to develop the ability to solve problems rationally, b) develop social attitudes and the spirit of mutual cooperation in life, c) dynamically the group in learning activities, so that each member feel themselves as part of a group responsible and d) develop leadership skills at each member-kelompokj leadership in problem solving groups.
Based on the issues that have been raised can be obtained several prominent features in the learning groups, namely: a) the students aware as a member of the group, b) the students have a common goal, c) the students have a sense of mutual need, d) interaction and communication among members , e) there is joint action and f) the teacher acts as a facilitator, mentor and controllers working order.
6.      Methods Learning Case Studies
This method of form description of the problem, incident, or situation then assigned students looking for alternative solutions. Kemudiaan This method can also be used to develop critical thinking and find new solutions darisuatutopicyangdipecahkan.
these methods can be developed or applied to students, when students have prior knowledge about these problems.
Meode has limitations as follows:
a.      Gets cases that have been written as a result of field research and in accordance with the student life environment.
b.      Developing cases very expensive.
7.      Methods of Learning to Play
Meaning According to the method for Role Playing Members:
Playing the role or the English term role-playing or strategy is a method of learning which belongs to the group model of social learning ( social models ). Learning methods play a role emphasizes the social nature of learning and considers that cooperative behavior can stimulate students both socially and intellectually.
Joyce, B. R., & Weil, M. 2000. Role Playing; Studying Social Behavior and Values. In Models of Teaching. Allyn and Bacon.
8.      Arguing Learning Method
1.       Meaning Debate
1) Debate is an activity of an argument between two or more parties, either individually or in groups, to discuss and decide issues and differences. Formally, the debate is mostly done in the legislative institutions such as parliaments, especially in countries that use the system opposition. In this case, the debate do obey the rules clear and the results of the debate can be generated through a vote or decision of the jury. (Source: id.wikipedia.org).
2) Debate is a discussion between two or more people of different views, where between one party and the other parties to attack each other. (Source: eduscpes.com)
3) Debate occurs where the emotional element of a role. The participants here are many just want to defend his opinion and there is little room in his mind, if any, to hear the good opinion of others. Atmosphere becomes 'crowded' and the peaceful nature of the discussion that did not happen. Each participant would only 'hear' their own opinion and wishes so that other participants agreed with. So there is an element of coercion will. (Source: krishnamurti.or.id)
4) Debate is the main activity of the people who demonstratic (source: pbs.org)
5) Debate is a contest between two people or groups are present on their arguments and attempt to develop arguments of their opponents. (Source: triviumpursuit.com)
2.       steps
1) Measures Model Debate
1. Teacher Divide 2 groups of participants debate the pros and cons of the other.
2. Teachers gave a task to read the material to be debated by the two groups above.
3. After reading the material, the teacher pointed to one of its members. The pro to speak when it responded to or addressed by the counter so forth until most of the students can express their opinions.
4. While student teachers submit ideas to write core / ideas of any discussion on the board. Until a number of ideas that teachers are expected to be fulfilled.
5. She added concepts / ideas that have not been revealed.
6. From the data on the board, the teacher invites students to a conclusion / summary referring to the topic you wish to achieve.
   2)    Lesson Using Model Debate
Teachers convey apresepsi and motivation of the subject matter, namely the balance of the ecosystem preceding section Logging and burning of rain through the question and answer. Then the teacher to motivate the importance of the material to be learned and provide an example of the daily activities related to the balance of the ecosystem.
Main Activities
Teacher writes the goal of learning about 'Ecosystem' then explain the material to learn about the balance of the ecosystem. Teacher gives examples of some of the actions that upset the balance of the ecosystem in the environment, such as fires and deforestation. Students create other examples.
Teachers make a controversial statement to material that is presented is "the use of pesticides on crops." Some students asked his opinion to have identified 2 opinion, that opinion agree and do not agree with the use of pesticides on crops. Then the teacher split the class into 2 groups. A cluster as a cluster of "PRO" or supporting statement agreed, while the other group is a group or cluster CONTRA reject or disagree with this statement.
 Teachers guide the debate between groups agree and disagree used pesticides in crops. Each group gave reasons openly and other groups can be denied or provide conflicting alan. Until it is concluded that the use of pesticides is necessary, but if excessive will harm the environment.
Debate ends by showing the reasons and considerations why each group agree and disagree terjhadap the use of pesticides on crops.
9.      inquiri Learning Method
The method of inquiry is a way of delivering lessons that are looking for a review of a critical, analytical, and argumentative (scientific) using specific steps towards the conclusion.
Inquiry method gives attention to encourage the student to develop a problem. Sudyna (1986:21) argues that the inquiry is a method of teaching that is laid and develop a scientific way of thinking.
Inquiry method is a method of discovery means a level mental processes (Anita, 2001:1-4). Efforts to develop the intellectual discipline and skills needed to help students solve problems by providing questions that get the answers to basic curiosity is a part of the proceedings. Mentally active involvement in the actual learning activities. Cooperatively inquiry enriches thinking and encourage their students' knowledge of the tentative nature of the emergence and try to appreciate the explanation.
Inquiry or discovery is a mental process in which students assimilate a concept or principle, such as observing, classifying, making allegations, explaining, measuring, and making conclusions and so on (Oemar Hamalik, 2001:219). The discovery that made ​​the discovery is of course not true, because what I found was actually already found someone else. So disins invention is the discovery or invention ostensibly concerned students only. Based on some definitions of the above can be concluded that the method of inquiry is a way of conveying the lessons laid and develop a scientific way of thinking in which students assimilate a concept or principle, such as observing, classifying, making allegations, explaining, measuring, and making conclusions and so on.

The steps in the process of inquiry 

The steps in the process of inquiry is (Sagala, 2003:97):
1.      sensitize the students that they have a curiosity about something. 
2.      Formulation of the problem to be solved learners. 
3.      Establish temporary answer or hypothesis. 
4.      Seeking information, data, facts necessary to address the problem or hypothesis. 
5.      Attractive kesipulan answers or generalizations. 
6.      Applying conclusions or generalizations from the new situation.

Strategy implementation method of inquiry 

Strategy implementation method of inquiry is as follows (Mulyasa 2006:235):
1.      teacher gives explanations, instructions or questions on material that will be taught. Before starting the lesson teachers, teachers must understand the extent to which students have the perception of the material. Then teachers and learners together to compare perceptions with different opinions or theories that already exist. 
2.      Teachers assign tasks to the learners to read and answer questions and homework. 
3.      Teachers provide clarification on issues that may confuse learners. 
4.      recitation to embed the facts they have learned in order to be understood. 
5.      Teachers provide an explanation as supplementary information and illustrations of the data that has been presented. 
6.      Discuss applications and perform in accordance with the information. 
7.      Inferred in summary form the conclusions that can be held accountable.

Advantages and disadvantages of the method of inquiry 

Excess inquiry method as follows:
1.      the active students in learning activities. 
2.      Generating student motivation. 
3.      Students understand the correct materials. 
4.      Pose for student satisfaction and increase confidence in yourself to be the discoverer. 
5.      Students will be able to transfer knowledge in a variety of contexts. 
6.      train students learn independently.

The weakness of the method of inquiry as follows:
1.      Arresting a lot of time. 
2.      way to learn is needed the mental readiness. 
3.      Not all students can perform discovery. 
4.      Not applicable to all topic. 
5.      less successful method for teaching large classes, because the teachers are very troublesome.
10.  Methods of Learning Charts
Learning model  graph is a model of learning that uses media card puzzle card paired with the answer to the riddle. Charade carried out by means of the card to match students about the puzzle with the right answer cards. Through the charade, in addition to the child becomes interested in learning also facilitate in instilling the concept of social studies in students' memories. So, the teacher invites students to play charades using the media cards from construction paper in social studies
Guess The word learning model is one lerning Cooperative learning model, the learning process interesting so that students become interested or interested in learning, facilitate in imparting concepts in students' memories. In addition students are also directed to the active, ie students or learners are able to and can ask questions, and mengemukakangagasan. 

11.  Methods of Learning  Facts, Concepts and Generalizations
The method can deduce something or some event that never happened, when drawn to a conclusion with the information must be backed up with facts that have to provide proof of the truth of an information.
Learning method that begins with the facts, then form a concept and concepts of making a generalization. Understanding these three elements is very important, because to form a theory in science will not be separated from elements of facts, concepts, and generalizations.
The task of the teacher to develop an understanding of concepts and generalizations of this and along with it also develop the ability to recognize the essential concepts and other concepts and also to develop the ability to formulate generalizations according to students' thinking skills. The task of the teacher in the classroom to develop the teaching and learning activities adapted to the situation and environmental conditions as well as his ability. Teachers are required to cultivate creativity in finding learning resources and learning activities that manages to run smoothly.

In general strategipembelajaran focuses on learning skills to help students become better and more independent in learning. Learners will learn how to develop and implement learning, personal management skills, and interpersonal and teamwork skills to improve learning and achievement in school. This learning program helps students to build confidence and motivation to pursue opportunities for success in secondary school and further education.
1.      Planning
the compilation of subject matter learning media consumption, use or approach learning methods in an allocation of time to be implemented in learning activities.
2.      Teaching Jump
Models of teaching (direct instruction) is empirically based on the theory of learning that comes from a clump of behavior (behavior family). Behavioral learning theory emphasizes behavior change as a result of learning that can be observed. According to this theory, learning to rely on experience, including providing feedback from the environment. The principle of the use of theory in the study of this behavior is that reinforcement will increase the expected behavior. Reinforcement through feedback to students is the foundation of practical use of this theory in learning.
3.      Provide Query
In essence, by asking us to know and get information about what we want to know. Associated with the learning process, the activities ask for between teachers and students, these students showed the presence of only between ineraksi class is in a dynamic and multi-direction. Activities will be more effective when asking questions properly qualified, easily understandable or relevant to the topic being discussed. The purpose of the teacher asking questions such as:
1.         Raises curiosity
2.         Stimulate thinking function
3.         Developing thinking skills
4.         Focusing the attention of students
5.         Diagnosing student learning difficulties
6.         Menkomunikasikan desired expectations by teachers of students
7.         Stimulating discussion and show concern over the idea and applied students as subjects students.
Asked the absolute skill to be mastered by a good teacher, the teacher beginners and professionals because by asking both teachers and students will get feedback from the material and also to arouse the attention of students or learners. The components and principles in questioning skills:  Asking Basic and Advanced inquiry, inquiry techniques, types of questions.
4.      Ekspositori
Emphasizing the delivery of learning resources delivered information to the participants. Through this approach can deliver learning resource materials through to completion. Expository more appropriately used when the type of learning that is both informative material in the form of concepts and basic principles that need to be understood for certain learners. This approach is also used when the exact number of learners in learning activities that are relatively much.
Advantages of Expository penggunaa is a source of learning can deliver learning materials to completion in accordance with a predetermined plan,   learning materials that they obtained the uniform nature of learning that is derived from one source,   residents learn to catch the train, manafsirkan material presented by the learning resources, the target material learning needs to be delivered easily achieved, can be followed by the learners in relatively high amounts.
5.      Skills Demonstration
Presentation of   the lesson by demonstrating or showing students a process, situation or particular object being studied, either real or artificial with oral. With the method of demonstration, the admissions process will be a memorable lesson in depth so as to form a perfect and fully understanding.
6.      Evaluation of Learning.
            In the learning process, evaluation occupies an important position and is an integral part of the process and stages of learning activities. By doing evaluations, teachers can measure the success rate of the learning process is done, at each time meetings, quarterly, semiannually, annually, even while in a particular educational unit. Thus, each time discussing the learning process, then it means we also discuss about the evaluation, since evaluation inclusive in the learning process.
            Referring to the assumption that learning is a system that consists of several elements, namely input, process and output / outcomes; then there is an evaluation according to the evaluation of learning objectives, namely the evaluation of inputs, processes and outputs / outcomes of learning. The evaluation emphasizes learning inputs in the evaluation characteristics of learners, completeness and state of learning infrastructure, characteristics and readiness of lecturers, curriculum and learning materials, learning strategies appropriate to the subject, as well as the state of the environment in which learning takes place.
            Evaluation of the learning process emphasizes the evaluation of learning management carried out by the learner include the effectiveness of learning strategies implemented, the effectiveness of instructional media, teaching methods implemented, and interests, attitudes and learning styles of students. Evaluation of learning outcomes or evaluation of learning outcomes among other uses the tests to measure learning outcomes as student achievement, in this case is the mastery of competencies by each student. Associated with the three types of evaluation of learning, the learning in general practice evaluation of learning emphasizes the learning process evaluation or managerial evaluation, and evaluation of learning outcomes or substantial evaluation. It is based on the premise that learning in the implementation of both types of evaluation is a component of the learning system is very important. Evaluation of two types of components that can be used to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the implementation and learning outcomes. Furthermore, these inputs in turn is used as the base material and improve the quality of the learning process leading to the improvement of the quality of learning outcomes.
            When discussing about the evaluation, we will find some views on evaluation, both with regard to the concepts, principles and objectives. Among them there are also some activity or terms relating to the evaluation, such as measurement, and testing.
            Wiersma and Jurs argues that evaluation is a process that includes measuring and testing, which also contains decisions on value. This opinion is in line with the opinion Arikunto stating that the evaluation is to measure and assess activity. The second opinion states that the evaluation has a broader scope than the measurement and testing.

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